Vol. 6, Number 8
August 2014
cheryl riley, James Freire,
Dr. David Bearman,
Gradi Jordan, Ed Glick,
Paul Armentano,
Sunil K Aggarwal,
Al Byrne, Amanda Reiman,
Jim Greig, Joan Bello,
Arthur Livermore
Who's Who
What's New
Contact Us Click here to donate to the American Alliance For Medical Cannabis! Bookmark and Share
AAMC California
AAMC El Dorado County CA
AAMC Idaho
AAMC Kansas
AAMC Oregon
AAMC Rhode Island
AAMC Washington

Study: CBD Mitigates Parkinson's Disease Symptoms - Paul Armentano

The administration of cannabidiol (CBD), a nonpsychotropic cannabinoid, controls sleep disorders in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), according to a series of case summaries published in the Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics.

An international team of investigators from the University of Sao Paulo, Brazil and the University of Minnesota Medical School reported on the ingestion of CBD by four Parkinson's disease patients with REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) - a condition characterized by nightmares and active behavior during dreaming.

Daily cannabidiol treatment reduced symptoms in each of the four subjects, researchers reported. Symptoms returned with the same frequency and intensity following subjects' discontinuation of the cannabinoid.

"[T]his case series indicates that CBD is able to control the symptoms of RBD," authors concluded. "Further research is necessary to confirm the possibly beneficial effects of CBD in the treatment of RBD in patients with PD. Furthermore, the enrolment of patients with idiopathic RBD in clinical trials with CBD is desirable as it would enable the investigation of the effects of the drug both on the symptoms of the disorder and as a neuroprotective agent."

Observational trial data published March in the journal Clinical Neuropharmacology reported that inhaled cannabis was associated with "significant improvement" in the mitigation of tremor, rigidity, and bradykinsea (slowness of movement) in subjects with Parkinson's disease.

Original Article

For more information, please contact Paul Armentano, NORML Deputy Director, at: paul@norml.org. Full text of the study, "Cannabidiol can improve complex sleep-related behaviours associated with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder in Parkinson's disease patients: a case series," appears in the Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics.

THC, CBD And More: The Entourage Effect Of Whole-Plant Cannabis Medicine - Dr Malik Burnett

For years now Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) has been the most popular and widely researched cannabinoid in cannabis science. However, nowadays it seems like cannabidiol (CBD) has stolen the spotlight given its ability to provide therapeutic relief to children suffering from various epileptic disorders, while lacking the psychotropic effects (i.e. high) of THC. It’s even gotten to the point that state legislature are passing laws “CBD-only” medical marijuana legislation.

Given all of this, it is easy to see how CBD and THC can be viewed as being in competition. But the reality is that both compounds, along with as many as 66 other cannabinoids, play important roles in providing the therapeutic benefits associated with cannabis therapy. They work in conjunction with approximately 420 additional compounds (terpenes, flavonoids, etc.) to give cannabis its versatility in treating a multitude of medical ailments.

Medical Marijuana: Much More Than Just THC and CBD

As good students of the Cannabis Classroom, you are probably familiar with the previous pieces which featured what can simply be described as the Big Six cannabinoids: THC, CBD, CBG, CBN, CBC, and THCV. Each cannabis plant contains these and many other cannabinoids at various percentages as part of the plant’s total chemical profile.

“The chemical profile of the cannabis plant contains other compounds like terpenoids, amino acids, proteins, sugars, enzymes, fatty acids, esters, and flavonoids…”

In addition to cannabinoids, the chemical profile of the cannabis plant contains other compounds like terpenoids, amino acids, proteins, sugars, enzymes, fatty acids, esters, and flavonoids, just to name a few.

Naturally, you consume all of these compounds when medicating with cannabis. The question is how do all of these compounds work together to provide therapeutic relief? The answer can be found in a concept called the “entourage effect.”

The Entourage Effect: Chemical Teamwork

Raphael MechoulamFirst described in 1998 by Israeli scientists Shimon Ben-Shabat and Raphael Mechoulam, the basic idea of the entourage effect is that cannabinoids within the cannabis plant work together, or possess synergy, and affect the body in a mechanism similar to the body’s own endocannabinoid system.

This theory serves as the foundation for a relatively controversial idea within pharmacology community, that in certain cases whole plant extractions serve as better therapeutic agents than individual cannabinoid extractions. The entourage effect theory has been expanded in recent times by Wagner and Ulrich-Merzenich, who define the four basic mechanisms of whole plant extract synergy as follows:

  1. Ability to affect multiple targets within the body
  2. Ability to improve the absorption of active ingredients
  3. Ability to overcome bacterial defense mechanisms
  4. Ability to minimize adverse side effects.

Affecting Multiple Targets

Many studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of cannabis as a therapeutic agent for muscle spasms associated with multiple sclerosis. A study conducted by Wilkinson and colleagues determined that whole-plant extracts were more effective than THC alone.

Researchers compared 1mg THC vs. 5mg/kg cannabis extract with the equivalent amount of THC, and found the whole plant extract to have significantly more antispastic effect.

The researchers attributed this result to the presence of cannabidiol (CBD) within the cannabis extract, which helps to facilitate the activity of the body’s endocannbinoid system.

Improving Absorption Of Active Ingredients

The entourage effect can also work to improve the absorption of cannabis extracts. Cannabinoids are chemically polar compounds, which makes them at times makes them difficult for the body to absorb in isolation.

“With the assistance of terpenoids like caryophyllene, absorption of cannabinoids can be increased.”

Absorption of topicals provides a prototypical example of this problem. The skin is made up of two layers, also known as a bi-layer, which makes it difficult for for very polar molecules like water and cannabioids to pass through.

With the assistance of terpenoids like caryophyllene, absorption of cannabinoids can be increased and therapeutic benefits achieved.

Overcoming Bacterial Defense Mechanisms

The entourage effect also accounts for cannabis extracts to be effective in treating various bacterial infections. There are a number of studies which show the antibacterial properties of cannabinoids.

“Whole-plant cannabis extracts have non-cannabinoid constituents which also have antibacterial properties.”

However, bacteria develop defense mechanisms over time to combat the effects of antibiotics ultimately allowing them to become resistant to therapies which were previously effective.

Thus, it is beneficial that whole-plant cannabis extracts have non-cannabinoid constituents that also have antibacterial properties. These molecules attack bacteria through pathways which differ from cannabinoid pathways. Given the attack on multiple fronts, the development of bacterial resistance is limited.

Minimizing Adverse Side Effects

Finally, the entourage effect allows certain cannabinoids to modulate the negative side effects of other cannabinoids. The most fitting example of this is CBD’s ability to modulate the perceived negative effects of THC.

Many patients are have heard about (or experienced) the increased anxiety and paranoia sometimes associated with cannabis consumption. Thanks to the entourage effect, research has shown that CBD can be effective in minimizing the anxiety associated with THC, lowering users’ feelings of paranoia.

As you can see, THC, CBD, and the remaining cannabinoids don’t have to compete with one another – they can work in tandem alongside the other components of cannabis extracts to provide therapeutic relief for a wide variety of ailments.

Original Article

Medical Cannabis
Educational Video Project

We are starting a campaign to support the Medical Cannabis educational video project. Please go to our donation page to support this campaign.

What's New

Alabama: Considering a medical marijuana law.
   HB642 - The Michael Phillips Compassionate Care Act of Alabama

Arkansas: Considering a medical marijuana law.

Florida: Medical marijuana petition drive underway.

Idaho: Considering a medical marijuana law.

Indiana: Considering a medical marijuana law.

Iowa: Considering a medical marijuana law.

Kansas: Medical marijuana petition drive underway.
   Marijuana Bill Reaches House
   Cannabis Compassion and Care Act

Minnesota: Passed a restrictive medical marijuana law.

Missouri: Considering a medical marijuana law.
   HOUSE BILL NO. 1670 - An Act relating to the use of marijuana for medicinal purposes
   Cottleville Mayor Don Yarber hopes Missouri legislature passes medical marijuana law

New York: The 23rd medical marijuana state.
   Medical Marijuana Bill

North Carolina: Considering a medical marijuana law.
   North Carolina Medical Cannabis Act

Ohio: Considering a medical marijuana law.
   HB 214

Pennsylvania: Considering a medical marijuana law.
   HB 1393

South Carolina: Considering a medical marijuana law.

South Dakota: Medical marijuana petition drive underway.

Tennessee: Considering a medical marijuana law.

Texas: Considering a medical marijuana law.

Wisconsin: Considering a medical marijuana law.
   The Jacki Rickert Medical Marijuana Act

Featured Recipe - The Green Peril

A Pasta Recipe to delight all

The Green Peril was invented in sunny left coast Southern California. The author had recently returned from a better bud butter seminar and was anxious to test cook the goods. The Canny Bus was left at the airport Sports Bar while the author flew home in all speed.

Dr. Jay was ably assisted in the development of this classic by none other than his Nancy wife. Together this adventurous pair provides the reader a big clue that improvisation is the key to fun and frugal cooking.

Having arrived back in Los Angeles, author and wife made a quick grocery trip and were determined to clear out the refrigerator. The beauty of pasta is that you can make it different every time. Remember. Don't forget to substitute what you have on hand, what your budget will bear, and just what kinky tastes fit your fancy. A note of caution about this recipe: Do not serve to airplane pilots, other users of heavy machinery, nor practicing health care workers. Avoid sharp objects after eating (no knife is necessary in preparation or eating).

Green Peril is delicate, creamy, and moderately dangerous


One-package spinach/ricotta cheese raviolis (dairy section)
1\4 Cup extra virgin olive oil
1\4 Cup Chardonnay
3-4 tablespoons of bud butter
1\2 mini tub of fresh artichoke/pesto sauce (dairy section)
2 grams crushed and powdered bud (White Widow or Blueberry preferred)
1-tablespoon basil
1-teaspoon coarse black pepper
3 medium shallots-chopped
3 cloves of garlic-crushed
1-teaspoon sea salt

Green Peril


Heat olive oil in a large skillet while setting one liter slightly salted water up to boil.

Sauté garlic and shallots until the shallots are just clear. Add pepper, basil, and bud to skillet. Pour in wine and bring back to medium heat. Incorporate the artichoke/pesto sauce. Bring to heat and simmer.

Add pasta to boiling water and cook until firm but tender (al dente). Drain cooked pasta and set aside.

Add bud butter to simmering sauce blending in carefully. Add the drained pasta to the sauce and gently blend. Serve in large bowls with Pecarrino Romano cheese (go easy), fresh basil, and bud as garnish.

Side dishes may include a fresh garden salad and hot buttered toast (you must make sure all excess sauce is soaked up).

Recommended Wine: Any decent Beaujolais

Follow AAMC on:
8th National Clinical Conference on Cannabis Therapeutics
May 8, 9, 10, 2014
Portland, Oregon USA

Contribute to the AAMC
Legal Fund here:
Click here to donate to the AAMC Legal Fund!

Medical Marijuana States

Arizona *
District of Columbia
Maine *
Michigan *
Montana *
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New Mexico
New York
Rhode Island *

* States with reciprocity law

Pacific One Distributors
Advertise on Facebook
Click here to join the American Alliance For Medical Cannabis!